Study skills and revision techniques - please share your tips by adding a comment below, or clicking the 'edit' link.
How to prepare Edit
Plan your work rate Edit
If you're self-studying from a textbook which covers your exact exam specification, one popular technique is to count the number of weeks until the exam, take off 6-8 weeks for revision, then count up the number of sections/ exercises in the book, and work out how many exercises/sections you need to do a week to complete the book comfortably.
If you are using a distance learning course, the course provider should provide a timetable and guidance on this.
Look at the teacher resources (if available) for your syllabus. Edexcel usually provide a free, editable scheme of work which divides the whole syllabus up into lessons, with suggested resources such as videos, activities and links. For example, go to the Edexcel International GCSE Biology page and click on the 'Teaching and learning materials' tab.- see screenshot.
Scroll down to 'Scheme of Work'. You can download this and edit/amend it for your own purposes. It's like a course guide for the entire syllabus. Other exam boards often provide similar teacher support materials, although they may be behind a teacher login.
Get the right textbook Edit
The right textbook makes self-study much easier ; if the book is for your exact exam specification, you can often just work your way through the book and find practice questions tailored for your syllabus, and useful tips on how to approach the exam. There are dedicated textbooks available for most GCSE and IGCSE subjects; just make sure you are buying for your exact syllabus, eg "Edexcel IGCSE English Specification A". If you're studying for International GCSEs then it's best to get a dedicated textbook for that, rather than for the GCSE, as there will be some differences between the syllabuses.
You generally need to order a "Student book" - this is a complete course tailored to the syllabus, with plenty of practice questions. You won't find these on the high street though - the books in general bookshops are usually "revision guides", which summarise the course and don't contain all the material you need. If you are looking for a textbook for Edexcel Biology for example, see recommended books on the Biology page, and search online booksellers for 'edexcel igcse student book biology'.
Often the exam board (eg Pearson Edexcel, CAIE/Cambridge) will publish its own Student Book, and you can be confident that this will cover the whole syllabus. However, there are also Student Books published elsewhere but for each syllabus, and some of these are endorsed by the exam board too. As long as the book is dedicated to the syllabus you have chosen, it should cover the course. It's really down to which books work well for your family, and which layout you prefer. A caution - some Student Books contain answers for all exercises, or make answers to all exercises available online, but others only publish answers in an expensive teacher's book which may cost £100 or so. Check on this wiki's individual subject pages to see what's on offer in your subject.
How to get the most out of the textbook Edit
Some textbooks are easier to self-study from than others.
A 'Student Book' intended for use in schools will often have sections designed to be one lesson's worth of work, with practice exercises, which correspond to specific parts of the syllabus. Maths textbooks often follow this format. In this case, the textbook might provide all you need. Other subjects may have textbooks with larger chapters and it may be harder to break the work down into manageable chunks. In this case, a scheme of work, resources from eg TES online, or from study websites, can be very helpful.
Past Papers Edit
Once you've worked through the course, whether that is via a textbook, correspondence course, with a tutor etc, you will need to spend some time doing practice papers / mock exams. Most students find this a valuable experience.
You can usually download past exam papers, mark schemes and examiners' reports from the page on the exam board for that particular qualification; we have a page on Past Papers with more advice and links to download sites. Have a look at the subject pages on this wiki for more resources on each subject (see Main Page for list of subjects), and if you're still short of material, post on the HE-Exams list to ask for suggestions. The most recent past paper will normally be secure download only from the exam board as schools use these for mocks. The exam boards will not allow home educators to download these from their sites, but will sell you a paper copy. You can also usually source a copy via the HE-Exams list.
- When doing practice papers, students may find it helpful to mark it themselves and become familiar with the mark scheme so they know what markers are looking for. Read the Examiner's Report too - reading about other people's mistakes may save you from making some yourself!
- Pay attention to timing; during practice exams, divide the total number of marks by the minutes available so you have a 'marks per minute' number. Then, when you look at the number of marks available for a question, you know roughly how long to allow for it.
- The marks available tell you also how many points you need to make in an answer. If there are 3 marks available, generally you need to make at least 3 points - even if this involves spelling out something you think is obvious.
- Do some past papers under exam conditions - in a quiet room, with strict exam timings - to help you pace yourself.
- If you have some revision time available, but don't have time or stamina to work through a full past paper, you don't need to do one all in one go. Look at the marks per minute, as noted above, and give yourself questions to suit the available time.
- You may need to look at the previous specification if there are not many past papers available for your qualification. Often the changes between specifications are quite small so you may find that the old papers are still good practice. The exam board may have a document explaining changes from one specification to the next, available under 'teacher support materials' on the subject page. Otherwise, you need to look for questions which are similar in style to the current ones, and compare the specifications.
Revision Tips Edit
There has been plenty of research looking at revision techniques to try to find out which ones do help people remember information, and which don't. The articles listed here mostly explain research from cognitive neuroscience. Your own experience may be different, but this is a summary of what works in trials.
Things which don't work well for most people:- Edit
- Re-reading your notes
- copying out notes.
- Cramming - trying to revise a subject all in one go
- Having background music, social media or phones around consistently reduces recall in studies.
Things which do work well, on average:- Edit
- Testing - 'retrieval practice' makes you more immune to exam stress and helps to embed facts in long-term memory.
- Working with others who have a good work ethic.
- Spaced repetition - revising at intervals
- Interleaving - mixing up revision of different subjects
Articles on effective revision techniques Edit
Revision Techniques That Work - brilliant booklet from St Neot's Sixth Form centre which explains evidence-based revision techniques in detail. Highly recommended.
Revision Techniques - The Good, The OK, and The Useless - BBC article on evidence-based techniques. Overview.
All In The Mind from BBC Radio 4, on which revision techniques work.
Five Proven Hacks to Help Students Tackle Revision - some useful detail from The Guardian, with links to research.
Top 10 Revision Strategies, from The Confident Teacher - really good article with lots of detail on a variety of methods eg graphical revision techniques.
The Science of Revision - 9 ways to revise more effectively, from The Guardian.
Online Revision Programs and Resources Edit
Quizlet - Free online study tool site offering screen flashcards and various games and options to help you learn them. Search for a ready-made set on your subjects (eg 'Biology IGCSE'), or make your own.
Memrise - mnemonic program. Search for your subject or create your own course. Especially good for languages but used for other subjects too.
Coggle - free Mind Mapping-style program
GetRevising.co.uk - free site with tools to create mind maps, flashcards, revision timetables and more.
MindMeister free Mind Map software